Saturday, May 23, 2020
This Earth of Mankind is a novel that takes place between 1898 and 1910 and conveys the story of a Javanese boy by the name of Minke and his life growing up in the Netherlands East indies. Minke is a brilliant student who is a descendant of Javanese royalty and have a very good critical eye when it comes to the dangers of the world. He is the first Javanese boy to attend an elite Dutch Colonial High School. MinkeÃ¢â¬â¢s life is going to change once he is invited to live with an atypical family. The mother of this family is a native concubine by the name of Nyai Ontosoroh, she has two half- European children, Robert and Annelies who Minke ends up falling in love with, but Robert does not approve causing anger to grow towards Minke. With theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Through the story of minke we see the suffering that is caused by colonialism and human dignity and the freedom. This novel a great illustration of the twentieth century and the understanding of humanity and all the complexities. Through the novel Minke implements views into the period in which Dutch colonial is above the Java world. This earth of mankind illustrates a great time of modern world history by displaying the Dutch colonial time and their goal to improve the natives and their population by exposing then to the social tutelage and the western education. During this time there was also a higher change in technology along with the arise of political issues in Netherlands East indies as the indigenous people look for a path that will help increase their freedom and Autonomy in their everyday life. European and American colonial powers in the 19 century both began to see each other on a higher scale than others in terms of their population of natives and their colonies. They saw each other as a guide that will help them improve and benefit from the each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s goods like western education and cultural emulation to improve the European culture and intellectual along with the qua lity of the political system. However, the guidelines for Netherlands became a spread of dominant outlook that the Europeans were racist and thought that that their culture was better thanShow MoreRelatedCritique Of `` Michael ``964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Michael.Ã¢â¬ In British Literature, compiled by Sandra Brazil, 194-199. Pensacola: A Beka Book, 2010. Summary of Major Ideas In Ã¢â¬Å"Michael,Ã¢â¬ William Wordsworth attempts to demonstrate the reader about good life lessons throughout the poem. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"MichaelÃ¢â¬ implements Romanticism literary philosophies and characteristics. He supports this claim by showing literary devices throughout the poem. He describes the main point of the story by presenting about Michael, an old shepherd who sacrificesRead MoreDeath Is Death And The Idea Of Death1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A common phrase in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is Ã¢â¬Å"only two things are certain in this world; death and taxes.Ã¢â¬ Death has always stirred mysticism and aversion, maybe even fear in the hearts of women, men and children alike. Death, in the past, has come sooner to many due to plague, diseases and lesser heath cares so characters in older poems were younger at their time of death. It makes since that authors tap into this emotion and this mystery that surrounds death. Human nature tends to fear things unknownRead M oreDistinguishing Profound Religious Poems : British Literature995 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBrittany Warden Professor Hall ENGL 2230 F02 5 October 2016r Distinguishing Profound Religious Poems: British Literature Britain is a small island north of Europe and during the early centuries it was part of the Roman Empire. However, the Germanic invaders known as Anglos and Saxons started conquering the southeastern lands of Britain. Consequently, during the early Middle Ages works of British literature were starting to be published. As such literature represents one way to learn about the cultureRead MoreThe Similarities And Differences Between The 8th And 7th Century Bce880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesphilosopher Hesiod. This epic poem described the birth of the ancient Greek Gods, and how the heaven and earth came to be. The Gods in the Theogony relate to traditions held by the Greeks, and their daily lives. They also use the gods to explain unexplainable phenomenonÃ¢â¬â¢s that occurred during their era, and give piece to those who were frightened. All the gods in the Theogony had a meaning and a unique story of how they came to be, but one section of this epic poem stood out to me. This would be the storyRead MoreThe Death Of Black Americans1273 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdeath. . All people were created and placed on Earth to serve a specific purpose, be it to teach mankind a lesson, to make a difference in the world, or simply to exist. Death is a harsh reality that waits for all people; it is immutable and unavoidable. It is for certain, though, that the deaths of some individuals should have been deferred, especially in instances of racial prejudice. Prejudice is often the seed of hate crimes; it is this biased and close-minded hatred that leads to the deathsRead MoreThe Tyger By William Blake Essay969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Tyger is a six-stanza poem written by an American poet, William Blake. This poem has many interpretation, in a way you could say it is a biblical as well as a symbolic poem, as Ã¢â¬ËThe TygerÃ¢â¬â¢ is actually the contrast to one of Blake s other poem, The Lamb, both poems are from the book of Ã¢â¬Å"Songs of Innocence and ExperienceÃ¢â¬ . If you are familiar with the Christian Bible, it states Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus is the Lamb o f God.Ã¢â¬ The Tyger is comprised of unanswered questions as to who could have created a terrifyingRead MoreTwinkle, Little Star1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTwinkle, Little Star Entwined within two poems, one titled Bright Star and authored by John Keats, the other called Choose Something Like a Star penned by Mr. Robert Frost, emerges the similar theme of the human need for stability and sense of permanence. Although varied in literary devices, sub themes, and structure the like poems strongly convey this common ideal and do so with the powerful icon of the star, or the heavens. The star historically represents the eternalness of the heavens andRead MoreRomantic Expressions of Mutability and Mortality Essay873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMortality The Romantic movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was a direct reaction to the established cultural ideals of the European Enlightenment. The values of the Enlightenment were based upon scientific rationality, but eventually this movement culminated in the bloodthirsty French Revolution, which, in turn, spawned violent upheaval throughout Europe. Many of the Romantic poets were greatly disenchanted by the barbarity displayed by their fellow man, and as a result, began to rejectRead MoreJohn Milton s Paradise Lost1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshe seems in the epic. MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s God is equally responsible in the fall of Adam and Eve due to the Ã¢â¬Å"free willÃ¢â¬ that he claims he gives, and his actions or lack therefore of that led up to the fall. The theme of free will is evident throughout the epic poem, Paradise Lost. Free will is the ability to make decisions and choices without the influence of others. In Paradise Lost, God gives off the impression that he grants everyone free will. He states Ã¢â¬Å"Such I created all thÃ¢â¬â¢ethereal Powers / And spiritsRead More William Wordsworths Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey2734 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesa Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey. The poem enlightens the reader on the awesome power and depth of nature, which Wordsworth has discovered in his trials and tribulations upon the earth. Thus, to fully understand the significance of nature in all lives told through Lines Composed A few Miles Above Tintern Abbey one must understand the setting and mood, as well as comprehend the rhyme scheme, and use of many diverse poetic devices that interact within the poem. One is able to gain insight into
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 974 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? The main objective of working capital management is to conserve an optimal balance among each of the working capital contraption. Business success heavily depends on the financial executives capability to efficiently manage receivables and loans, account, and payables (Filbeck and Krueger, 2005). Firms can diminish their bankrolling costs and raise the funds available for development projects by reducing the amount of speculation tied up in current assets. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Reduce The Cost Of External Financing Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Van Horne (1995) explains that, working capital management is the administration of current assets in the name of cash, merchantable securities, receivables and staff loans, and inventories. Osisioma (1997) recognized that good working capital management must guarantee an suitable relationship between the different mechanisms of a firms working capital so as to make an efficient mix, which will guarantee capital acceptability. Thus, working capital management should make sure that the necessary amounts of each element of the working capital are available for management. However, the question is What controls the necessary workings of a bank are working capital and how much of such necessary components can be observed as acceptable or desirable? The necessary mechanisms of an establishments working capital, basically, depend on the type of business and industry. Cash, debtors, receivables, accounts, marketable securities, and redeemable futures can be predictable as the mutual comp onents of organizations working capital. However, the question is to recognize the factors that regulate the capability of working capital based on growth, size, operating cash flow, etc. The incapability to understand the influential factors and dimension of passable amounts of working capital will main an association to bankruptcy. Determination of cash level of Bank: Among the key factors which inspiration level of cash situation of firms comprise but not incomplete to leverage, firm size, growth occasions, efficiency of firms, firm productivity, age, previous level of cash and firm risk. (Kim et al., 1998; Ferreira and Vilela, 2004; Ozkan 2004) establish a discount in cash levels when firms raise their financial influence. This may be because the advanced the financial leverage, the higher the budgets of the funds used to advance in liquid assets (Baskin, 1987). According John (1993) maintains, firms that can access the debt market can alternative to providing as a additional for liquid assets. Size is another momentous variable that affects cash holdings. The traditional models to determine the optimal cash levels (Baumol, 1952; Miller and Orr, 1966), or more recent models such as that of Mulligan (1997), demonstrate that there are economies of scale associated with the cash levels required to confront the normal transactions of the firm, so that larger firms can keep lower cash holdings. Moreover, firm size is related to another set of factors that may influence liquidity levels. More specifically, smaller firms suffer more severe information asymmetries (Berger, Klapper and Udell, 2001), more financial constraints (Fazzari and Petersen, 1993) and they are more likely to suffer financial distress (Rajan and Zingales, 1995). Also, financial distress is related with high fixed costs and these costs are consistently better for minor firms. Therefore, we would imagine a adverse relation between firm size and cash properties. Growth opportunity: The existence of growth opportunities in firms is an important factor that affects cash levels, as has been shown in various empirical studies (Kim et al., 1998; Opler et al., 1999; Ferreira and Vilela, 2004; Ozkan and Ozkan, 2004). As Myers and Majluf (1984) point out, firms whose value is largely determined by their growth opportunities have larger information asymmetry. Consequently, firms with greater growth opportunities incur higher external financing costs. They also suffer more serious agency conflicts associated with the debt, which can lead to underinvestment (Myers, 1977), insofar as it discourages shareholders from embarking on profitable projects. On the other hand, firms with more growth opportunities may also incur greater costs of financial distress (Harris and Raviv, 1990; Shleifer and Vishny, 1992). This is because their value depends on their growth opportunities rather than on tangible assets or specific cash flows. Thus, this type of firm will keep higher cash levels to avoid costs of financial distress. In this respect, John (1993) finds that firms with good growth opportunities but few tangible assets tend to keep higher cash holdings. Hence we might expect firms with more investment opportunities to keep higher liquidity levels, in order not to limit or cancel their profitable investment projects. Their value depends on carrying out these projects, so that the cost of not having sufficient cash to make the investments is higher. This notwithstanding where firms have projects on-going their levels of cash may dwindle as more of their cash are put into investment projects. Thus age and bank growth (measured as change in interest income) are used as proxies for firm growth. Profitability: Profit is a source of cash flow for firms. The amount of profit made by a firm is either retained for funding future investment opportunities or distributed to shareholders as dividend. Even though the amount of profit made in a particular year by a firm does not automatically translate into exactly the same amount of cash, it is unlikely that less profitable firms would have more cash flows than highly profitable firms, all other things being equal. Therefore, profitable firms are expected to have more cash than less profitable firms. Risk: Firms that are risky tend to use cash holding as buffer against future uncertainties. Guney et al. (2007) contend that firms with more volatile cash flows are expected to hold more cash in an attempt to mitigate the expected costs of liquidity constraints. After short falling of liquid asset, when firms have valuable growth opportunities, then these opportunities are given up and firm value will drop. Minton and Schrand (1999) find that firms with higher volatile cash flow permanently forgo investment rather than reacting to cash flow shortfalls by changing the discretionary investment timing. Again, firms that hold a lot of debt are considered to be more risky than others. In order to manage working capital efficiently, there is the need that financial
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Cigarette Advertisements nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Advertisements are everywhere. After turning on the television, within minutes the viewer will glimpse dozens of spot ads that attempt to lure him/her to buy a certain product, join a certain club, or watch a specific show. When driving on a highway those in the vehicle will pass countless billboards urging them to stop at a particular restaurant, spend the night at a distinguished hotel, or visit enjoyable family theme parks. The most prominent form of advertisement, however, are those ads found in magazines. Magazines house numerous ads for every different product imaginable. Advertisements that promote cigarette smoking cover dozens of magazine pages each month. With a variety ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦After reading such an article and then taking a glimpse at this ad a woman might think to herself, amp;#8220;Hey, if I smoke Winston cigarettes than maybe I will attract men as well.; Who knows, some women may even be interested in the manamp;#8217;s amp;#8220;life story.; Although the ad itself is a simple lay out, its significance does not go unnoted. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The second cigarette advertisement enclosed endorses Marlboro Lights. This ad, found within the pages of Esquire magazine targets it articles and ads chiefly towards males. Another two-paged ad, the promotion of this cigarette is effective as well. The entire lay out focuses on male cowboys. These cowboys are riding their horses on a landscape which looks as though it is endless, further painting a more rustic and rugged image. The sun is setting in the back which prevents the reader from getting a clear shot of the ridersamp;#8217; faces, yet one can tell that they are hard working and determined. As the three men attempt to lasso the horses, an even greater image is portrayed in the mind of the reader. They are, in a sense, brought back into the old days of farmers, ranchers, and cowboys. The men are imagined to be tough, rough around the edges and robust. The ad for Marlboro Lights is an enticing promotion for the fact that it may bring rise to the idea th at if a
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Analyzing Political Corruption and its Effects on the Mexican Economy Gyadisha Sulvaran Palm Beach State College Macroeconomics Warren Smith 4th of April 2014 Abstract For macroeconomics, we were given an assignment to examine and analyze the causes of the business cycle in foreign economies. We were divided into groups of 6 and were given the instructions to randomly select a continent. Our continent was North America. We had to choose between Canada and Mexico. The reason why we decided to choose Mexico is because of its economy trade with the US, their migration flow, the interesting influence on oil prices worldwide and the impact that the drug cartels have on Mexican politicians. Mexico is known for being one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most corrupt nations but somehow they still manage to have one of the best industrializing economies in Latin America. The causes for a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s business cycle can be either endogenous or exogenous. Throughout this paper, the internal problem of political corruption will be analyzed and discussed in order to determine MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s economic stage. Introduction Between 175 countries, Mexico is ranked as the 103rd most corrupt nation worldwide. Corruption has become the cancer of Mexico. Organized crimes and corruption are linked with each other and cannot operate without one another. There are witnesses who have seen state police pick up cocaine shipments and delivering them personally to the cartels. This linkage between cartels and theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Mexico Pest Analysis2157 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageshas resulted in recent years as one of the most promising emerging economics nevertheless the downturn occurred in 2009 under the influence of the crisis in the United States. In 2010 the economy has restarted its growth trend, which according to the forecast will bring the Country among the elites of world economy. This short paper explains the fundamental factors determining Mexico economic growth using the PEST Analysis Framework. In particular it focus on how International Business activities hasRead MoreMexico has exper ienced many reforms economically, socially, and politically in recent history2800 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagescountry. Typically, when people think of Mexico they think of the corruption in the government, the violent drug cartels, the widespread poverty, and the long time one party dominance of the government. Although these are major problems, they are not problems that are impossible to fix, or are currently being fixed. They are not persistent all throughout Mexico either, there are places where poverty, violent drug cartels, and corruption is non existent. Mexico is often misunderstood and generalizedRead MoreLearning for the Cuban and Nigerian Revolution2010 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesFor developing regions, Latin America and Africa are a few of the focal countries to analyze civil war onset and for future preventions. Cuba, now a communist state underwent political turmoil from leaders like Fidel Castro to achieve its present government. Nigeria, a prominent oil powerhouse also fac ed ethnic conflict stemming from its diverse population. Both countries are still susceptible to future conflicts, but learning from their own history could easily prevent it from happening. Cuba: TheRead MoreSo Far International Monetary Fund (Imf) Has Been Failed to Curve Corruption, Reduce Public Spending and Develop Macroeconomic Policies4014 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"So Far International Monetary Fund (IMF) Has Been Failed to Curve Corruption, Reduce Public Spending and Develop Macroeconomic Policies.Ã¢â¬ What is IMF? The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank were created in 1944 at a conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, and are now based in Washington, DC. Now it is an organization of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainableRead MoreIntroduction to Mexico10481 Words Ã |Ã 42 Pagespaper is to evaluate Mexico and the possibility of internationalization. In order to make an informed decision about such a country, the benefits, costs and risks of the venture must be considered. In this paper, we will analyze Mexico s economy, political structure, culture and management techniques. By examining these factors an American firm should be able to make a decision based on Mexico and the type of business considering a move into Mexico. This paper will show that a company can notRead MoreKfc and Global Fast Food Industry11778 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagesfor investment be cause of the size of its markets, its common language and culture, and its geographical proximity to the United States. Mexico was of particular interest because of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect in 1994 and created a free-trade zone between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. However, other fast-food chains such as McDonalds, Burger King, and Wendys were rapidly expanding into other countries in Latin America such as Venezuela, BrazilRead MoreInternational Marketing Assignments6200 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesenvironment. Ã 1. How would you begin to assess potential international markets that are best for B_E_E? Do a preliminary search of potential international markets and create a list. Make sure you consider potential groupings in terms of trade, incentives, economy, geography, culture and politics. Ans: The whole global market is covered by four main international markets like: Asian markets, European markets, South American market and North American market. The 77% market is covered by these markets. TheRead MoreEssay on Porters Diamond Model29755 Words Ã |Ã 120 PagesHost Country..................................................................................................................... 15 Table 2: Top Mexican Industries in Terms of Export Value, 1993 .................................. 31 Table 3: Top Mexican Industries in Terms of Export Value, 2003 .................................. 32 Table 4: Top Mexican Industry Exporters, 2003 .............................................................. 33 Table 5: Auto parts Balance Trade Mexico-World and PercentRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 Pagesglobalization and economic integration, but they have also underscored the interconnected nature of global economies. Most countries and regions around the world are inextricably linked, yet profound differences in institutional and cultural environments persist. The challenges for international management reflect this dynamism and the increasing unpredictability of global economic and political events. Continued growth of the emerging markets is reshaping the global balance of economic power. ManyRead MoreThe Full Convertibility of Renminbi: Consequences and Influences8173 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesThe Full convertibility of Renminbi: Consequences and Influences Abstract This paper indicates the issue of full convertibility for the Chinese currency, Renminbi(RMB), and its impact on the economy of China. It does not only point out the sequencing of RenminbiÃ¢â¬â¢s full convertibility, expounding the detailed concepts procedure of currency convertibility (current account convertibility and capital/financial account convertibility and full convertibility) but also focus on the necessity and
1. 4. 4 Information Systems for the Banking Financial Sector: Audit is one of the major controls for monitoring management activities in the banks and financial institutions. We will write a custom essay sample on Information System or any similar topic only for you Order Now In a computerized environment, IS audit is a very effective and necessary activity. Usually the IT implementation in the banking and financial organizations is done by adopting a mix of different methodologies Ã¢â¬â internal development and deployment and third party product development and deployment. In case of internally developed and deployed IT systems, IS audit will require to be done by a team of specially trained internal or external auditors. However, it is preferable to have the IS audit conducted with the help of suitable external agencies with the required skills and expertise to ensure independent nature of audit. In case of development and deployment of the IT systems by third parties, the IS audit requires to be conducted by trusted auditor/s with skills and expertise, required for the purpose. IS audit assumes greater significance because a large number of critical and strategic financial operations in the banking and financial sector are wholly or partly being handled by the computerized systems. There is a significant need for determining the role of IS in banks. This would assure the top manage- ment that the IS development is in the right direction. This would also help in exploring the intended and the real role of IS in banks. The knowledge of the real role of IS in banks would help IS managers in managing information systems by judging the business needs of the IS projects, associated risks, importance and ranking of IS managers in organizational hierarchy, need for innovation and flexibility in IS planning approach, etc. The IS practitioners may use the variables used here for self-evaluation and for deciding about the IS development. It has been well recognized that IS plays different roles in different industries. However, there is limited research examining the differences in the role of IS within a single industry. This study empirically explores the differences in the role of IS among public, private, and foreign ban. ks. Results indicate that while, at present, only private and foreign banks have obtained strategic advantages using IT, public sector banks, although late, have also realized the importance of IT. It has been empirically proved that the future impact of IS does not vary significantly with the banking groups. This suggests that IS efforts put in by the public sector banks are in the right direction and can be expected to give them a strategic advantage in future. Foreign and private banks, though in the strategic group today, have to constantly harness IS for strategic advantage to maintain their position. Sustaining competitive advantage is very difficult, because IS managers have to continuously evaluate the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s applications portfolio with respect to technology and their competitors. Public sector banks have to search for ways to shift from support group to the strategic group in order to enjoy a strategic advantage from the use of IS. In order to achieve this objective, they may have to formulate a different IS strategy so as to make them competitive enough to survive. Future research could evolve suitable IS strategies for all the three sectors. This paper has tried to locate the banks on the Strategic Grid. However, the level of computerization of various branches of a bank may be different and hence their dependency on IT may be different. Future research may involve locating the various branches and departments of a bank on the Strategic Grid and suggesting a suitable strategy for the branch. This study has the limitation that data are collected only from key IT executives. Perceptions of the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s business executives may be different from that of the IT executives. Therefore, future research could also attempt obtaining and analysing the opinion of bankÃ¢â¬â¢s business executives and looking for perceptual differences, if any. Another interesting area of future research could be to unearth the reasons for adopting a particular role of IS and to explore facilitators and inhibitors in using IS for strategic use. Uses of information technology in banking Write your abstract here. Applications of Information Technology in Banks in India While computer by itself is the most cherished invention that man has ever accomplished, its union with communication technology which is at its pinnacle, has brought yet another amazing extension to its already fabulous capabilities. From the period of Marconi to this day , the improvements that have taken place in the television , have literally brought the entire world into an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom. Joining this powerful communication environment , the IT has opened flood gates for global economic activity. The contribution of economic and political changes that have so far taken place to encourage international trade will bear fruit only when banking and the associated services can catch up with the new trends. The modern IT has enough capabilities to enable banks, financial institutions and others to bring about the desired changes. Banking sector reforms introduced a decade ago in 1992-93 , have been based on five fundamentals: 1. Strengthening of prudential norms and market discipline. 2. Appropriate adoption of International benchmarks. 3. Management of organizational change and consolidation. 4. Technological upgradation. 5. Human resource development. The Financial Reforms that were initiated in the early 90s and the globalization and liberalization measures brought in a completely new operating environment to the Banks that were till then operating in a highly protected milieu. Services and products like Ã¢â¬Å"Anywhere BankingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Tele-BankingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Internet bankingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Web BankingÃ¢â¬ , e-banking, e-commerce, e-business etc. have become the buzzwords of the day and the Banks are trying to cope with the competition by offering innovative and attractively packaged technology-based services to their customers. Reserve Bank of India constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Dr. C. Rangarajan. The main task of the committee was preparation of a plan for computerization for the period 1990-1994 ( for 5 Years ). For the purpose of computerization , the committee selected the important areas relating to customer service , internal-decision-making process , productivity and profitability. The committee furnished its report on November 9, 1989 with the following recommendations- 1. The branches having daily average level of vouchers at more than 750 should be computerized . 2. Computerization on branch level should be achieved on any of the following basis- (i)Selected branches will have on-line terminals with micro and mini-computers which will be linked with central main-frame computer to provide counter service and other office-services. ii)Personal computers will be installed at counters which will be linked with local area network. (iii)For third option , the banks will have to depend on Telecom line. 3. The banks should gradually use developed devices such as- Photocopier , FAX , Duplicator , Microfilm , Signature Storage , Scanners etc. 4. Non-computerized branches can take the services of other local computerized branch / office in case of important task. 5. The customers should have the facility to route their business to any branch of the bank. 6. All-Bank Credit Card should be issued. . Computers should be made bilingual and proper training arrangements should be made to provide training to staff members. 8. The regular customers should be offered On-line facility. 9. Like some European countries , there should be a system of credit clearing. 10. BANKNET should be used for interbank and intra bank applications. 11. All Regional offices and Zonal offices to be computerized in a phased manner. Rangarajan Committee Ã¢â¬â 1989: A Statistical Analysis Rangarajan Committee ( 1989 ) has focused its stress on computerization of banks. A statistical analysis was also made in the report of committee. In this analysis ,it was mentioned that following jobs can be rapidly and easily performed at Regional Office/Zonal office level. 1. To ascertain the bad and doubtful debts and to make provision for them. 2. To claim the amount under Credit Guarantee Schemes of DICGC. 3. To communicate , analyze and forecast the data for trade-plan. 4. To make action plan for recovery of advances. 5. Personnel Information System. 6. Credit Information System. 7. Checking of figures of priority sector advances. . Consolidation of statements/figures to be sent to the RBI. Present level of Computerization: Based on the norms worked out by Rangarajan Committee (II), 7827 branches of the Public Sector banks were identified for full branch computerization up to March 2000 of which around 4620 were computerized as on March 99. Meanwhile, the networking of the already-computerized branches also assumed urgency and some of the Banks have started inter-connecting their computerized branches using leased telephone lines or Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATS). This is meant to provide a more comprehensive service to customers and at the same time give banks better centralized control over the branch operations. As of now, New Private Sector and Foreign Banks have an edge over Public Sector Banks as far as implementation of technological solutions is concerned. However, the latter are in the process of making huge investments in technology. Source:Ã http://www. shvoong. com/humanities/1748375-applications-information-technology-banks-india/#ixzz2ONAVoUdI How to cite Information System, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Complementary and Alternative Therapies. Answer: Introduction: Therapeutic Communication (TC) is defined as the face-face interaction process which focuses on advancement of the physical and emotional wellbeing of a patient. The concept of TC refers to the process whereby nurses consciously influence patients or assists the patients to an improved understanding verbally or non-verbally. TC entails the utilization of particular strategies which encourage the patients to express ideas as well as feelings and which convey respect and acceptance. Nevertheless, the concept of TC has been described further by various researchers examining phrases/terms individually on the basis of the word structures as well as connotation (meaning). Communication and Therapeutic are the 2 multifaceted terms which separately entail varying connotations. Nonetheless, this phrase assumes rather a different meaning in medical vocabulary context and if regarded as the compound-noun. Therapeutic describes a science as well as an art of healing of or relating to the treatment/beneficial action. This can be extended further to entail what is called the assisting/helping relationships that is one that encourages and promotes the development and growth as well as enhanced coping with life for the other individual. On the other hand, communication has an array of definitions with tendencies to stress either the meaning or the message (Mills 2017). It can be defined as the ordered transfer of meaning: social interaction via message: reciprocal meaning conception: information/ideas/attitudes sharing between or amongst individuals. Communication has been as well suggested to be the act by which 1 or additional individuals sends as well as receives messages which can be disrupted by the noise, takes place under a setting, have certain impact as well as offers certain opportunity (Stuart 2014). TC encompasses the info exchange on two degrees non-verbal or verbal. Messages are being sent as well as received concurrently. Verbal-communication entails words arrangement into sentences, the content and context-a region in which conversation occurs that could include time alongside the social cultural, physical and emotional surroundings. Non-verbal-communication entails a behavior that accompanies verbal-content like eye consent, body-language, and facial-expression, voice tone among others (Fan and Taylor 2016). Non-verbal communication primarily signals the thoughts feelings and needs of the patient, primarily subconsciously (Lindquist, Snyder and Tracy 2013). TC techniques are used by the nurses to offer support as well as information to the patients. A variety of TC techniques are essential to achieve the nursing goals in the communication with patients. Through the verbal and non-verbal communication the nurses use TC to influence as well as help the patient. TC includes the utilization of different tactics which inspire patients to express ideas alongside feelings. Because each patient vary in culture, social-status, characters, and background, there are a range of reactions to TC (Fan and Taylor 2016). Nurses must efficient master effective TC techniques to create empathy towards the experiences revealed by the patients. It is imperative among the nurses to have effective communicative therapeutic competence to efficaciously employ the communicative processes and fulfil the required standards of patients healthcare. Via the TC, nurses must create an association, recognize the needs and worries of patients, and estimate the patients perception encompassing comprehensive actions (messages and behavior). Different theories as well as perspectives of TC have been presented by different scholars. They have studied TC techniques and elaborated them by varying viewpoints. The primary contributor to the mental health law reform was Hildegard E. Peplau. He led the way toward human treatment of the clients with behavior as well as personalities disorder. She ushered in theories of developmental phases of the nurse-patient associations. Such phases entailed, the orientation stage; identification stage; exploitation stage alongside resolution stage. This theory steered the way to subsequent nurse theorists as well as clinicians in the development of increasingly sophisticated techniques of TC (Wessel 2015). A. De Vitos engaged 3 setting dimensions to regard in the course of communication process. Such included social psychological; physical alongside temporal. These dimensions interact, and are applied together. Variables in every dimension impact the commutations formality, seriousness as well as intimacy. De Vito implied that communication assumes a liner process in which it begins with a single individual and advances through sequence of steps to another individual. Northhouse and Northhouse (1992) demonstrated that utilizing a kind of touch allow patients to perceive it in an encouraging manner. The form must be relevant to a given context, never to utilize a touch gesticulation which inflicts increased intimacy on the patient than the patient desires, and to be keen to observe the reaction of the patient to such touch. Potter and Perry (1999) probed as well as examined various elements of verbal communication leading to 6 elements as the utmost significant one in TC. These elements included vocabulary; intonation, pacing; clarity and brevity, timing and relevance alongside denotative and connotative meaning. Knapp and Hall (2002) did arrange the manner that non-verbal messages could interact easily with those of verbal ones. They categorized them as follows; conflicting, repeating, substituting, regulating, complementing as well as accenting/moderating. It remains a duty of the mental-health practitioner to pay extra alertness to the techniques of non-verbal communication utilized by patients to obtain extra info in case of mixed messages. Body-movements alongside positioning must be observed where the individual perceive mixed-messages in the interaction process. Arnold and Boggs (2003) focused on non-verbal-communication that encompassed messages that are established via body-motions, facial-expressions, and utilization of space as well as sounds alongside the utilization of touch. The authors highlighted 4 areas whereby non-verbal behaviors are utilized including cultural variations; proxemics; kinesis which entails body-languages and facial-expression; and appearance. The main goals of the TC are to assist the patient feel well cared for as well as understand and establish the relationship between the patient and nurse whereby the patient feels extremely free to express his attitudes, opinions and even feelings. TC is intended to help make the patient cope as with the illness and eventually feel excited and increasingly relaxed. The nurses benefit from TC because the job of making their patients feel both comforted as well as care for squarely fall under the nurse prevue and have to bare this on her shoulders. The nurses have to learn the key principles of TC to best meet the patients needs in their practice. TC that is envisioned to assist the patients encompasses the interpersonal-communication amongst the nurses and the patients. Techniques of TC usually infer the independence on patients. The nurses duty or role is then to utilize the info gathered to assist the patient to further probe his individual opinions and feelings. TC needs awareness of the nurse toward what is being asserted and any nonverbal cues (Yas and Mohammed 2016). The mental health nurse has to pay extra courtesy to patient alongside techniques followed as the nurse could insentiently impact patient via the utilization of the therapeutic communication techniques. The nurses role in the determination of the illness via steps as well as techniques followed remains of utmost importance to a successful TC. TC remains a purposeful kind of communication, permitting the patient and nurse to arrive at health-associated goals via partaking in the focused relationship. Obstacles to communication could have adverse effects on patient thereby lowering the self-esteem of the patient and could as well as bar communication. Nurse and patients must collaborate will all other members of the health care team to promote a successful TC. The TC will encourage positive interaction between the nurse and the patient. It helps the nurse to encourage the patient to express himself which then permits the nurse a more succinct notion or idea of the emotional tendencies of the patient. This will then help the nurse to determine the most beneficial approaches to treatment. The TC will allow the nurse to exemplify empathy, respect as well as nonjudgmental attitude which promote the preferred side of the patients self-expression as well as inspire the mutually patient-nurse trusting relationship. This allows the compassion toward the patient thereby encouraging the genuine concern as well as interest in the patients wellbeing as well as teaches the patient how to interact with the nurse in the constructive way to help in the caring and treatment of the patient (Yas and Mohammed 2017). The TC will also support personal accountability. TC helps the nurse to teach as well as provide the patient with essential tools the patient requires to recognize his challenges and enhance life contexts. The patient will then be empowered to become increasingly cognizant of his individual behavior and hence self-correct. TC also encourages the growth in areas the patient would wish to enhance instead of compelling the patient in any given direction. It will thus help the nurse avoid any resistance as it makes nurse collaborate with the patient without insisting in his own agenda thereby improving the therapeutic process. When the nurses uses the personal TC approach, the nurse will boost the probability that the patient will react or respond competently in his learning to cope with the illness, regulate patient moods, develop patients self-confidence as well as enhance relationship (Riley 2015). The TC also promotes openness. Where the lines of TC communication remain open, the patient will more likely to ask the nurse for assistance and more prone to be always open regarding persisting symptoms as well as challenges he is experiencing. The patients honest summation of how the therapy is assisting or impairing him will permit the nurse an opportunity to speak to such problematic matters instantly and reevaluate the options of treatment (Webster 2014). TC promotes empathy and hence encourages the patient to develop as well as reinforce beneficial therapeutic tools including open, communication, honesty and self-confidence. The use of TC permits the patient to learn how to reach his individual decisions as well as conclusions whereas reaffirming his confidence in own ability to make meaningful determinations. The therapeutic nurse-patient relationship will help understand the importance of TC to both nurse and patient. The TC encompasses the interpersonal communication between the nurses and the patient (Sherko, Sotiri and Lika 2013). The TC is purposed to assist patients. The competencies needed in TC are highly delicate as well as too many than the ones needed in the over-all interpersonal communication (interaction), and mastery of such techniques assists nurses in understanding their patients much effectively. Sound-interpersonal interactions competencies for the nurses remain of utmost significance as well as essential for the efficient TC. Nevertheless, TC is intended at the establishment of various purposes for nurses as a mental-health practitioner. Communication describes the channel that initiates, expounds as well as brings to an end the patient-nurse association. To accomplish effective TC, nurses must adhere to rules of confidentiality and privacy. This will protect the rights as well as privacy of patients, permit the patient to freely express himself, and respect patient by considering background, socioeconomic status, race, religion, age in respecting patients personal-space (Knapp 2014). A nurse has to be willing to separate between the intentions and needs of the patient; she could require to set boundaries where she feels that they will be dishonored. Utmost professionalism in TC is extremely imperative for the association between patient and nurse. Both must adhere to the rules, and utilize courteousness forms. The TC communication entails 5 levels. The first level is the interpersonal communication-face-to-face interactions between the nurse and another individual. The second level is the transpersonal communication- Involves the interaction which takes place within the individuals spiritual domain (Fortinash and Worret 2014). The third level is the small-group communication-Involves the interaction occurring where the small number of individuals meet and subsequently share a similar goal. The fourth level is intrapersonal communication- Powerful type of communication which takes place within the person. The fifth level is the Public communication-interaction with the audience including nurses being required to maintain eye contacts as well as use gesture. The patient and the nurse must collaborate actively following various kinds of communication. Active listening: Attentive/Alertness to what the patient is communicating nonverbally and verbally Share Observations: Making comments of how the patients looks acts and sounds Share empathy: Being sensitive to the patients Share Hope: The nurse must convey the sense of feasibility or possibility Share Humor: The nurse has to use this because it has a positive impact on the patient. The nurse must ensure that the patient is fully understanding what is being communicated Sharing feelings: This is importance as it assist the patient to share his feelings by via observation and encouragement of communication Utilize Touch: This will bring the sense of caring for the patient where the nurse holds the hands of the patient Utilize silence: This is also useful in permitting patients to think and also certain insight into the context. Listening remains imperative. What are the effective Techniques of therapeutic communication? To understand the effectiveness of the techniques of TC, it is appropriate to compare the therapeutic against non TC techniques. A nurse could use a range of techniques when establishing an association with patients. The choice of such techniques anchors entirely on the intention or the collaboration purposes alongside the patient abilities to verbally communicate with a nurse. The nurse must have a mastery of every technique to choose the right one to facilitate her interaction with the patient as well as reinforce the nurse-patient connection (Birks, Chapman and Davis 2015). TC assists the patients to trust as well as relax, whereas non-non-therapeutic communication triggers patients to feel increasingly uncomfortable as well as untrusting thus building walls which bar the communication between the nurse and the patient. Asking appropriate and suitable questions: the nurse should ask a single question at a time to enable her explore the topic before asking another one. Clarifying: the nurses must assess whether patient understood the provided info Confronting: This helps the patient to recognize his inconsistencies in feeling, beliefs and attitudes. Focusing: the nurse must focus on salient issues in conversation Paraphrasing: the nurse needs to restate the message of the patient to allow the patient to acknowledge that the nurse is listening Providing info: the nurse has to provide info which patient wants and needs to know Self-disclosing: it allows the nurse to show patient that the info is understood and signals respect for patient Summarizing: the nurses must summarize to bring a sense of closure between her and the patient to the conversation Non Therapeutic Techniques Whilst therapeutic techniques enhances efficiency, the non-therapeutic techniques could have opposing impacts. They will bar communication with the patients. The nurse must be well trained and competent to avoid utilizing non-therapeutic techniques with the patients. The non-therapeutic communication which must be avoided at all cost include the following: Altering the subjects that blocks further communication Approval/disapproval could send message that a nurse has right to make decisions or judgment Arguing might means that the patient is telling lies or misinformed. Asking for explication/explanation which can potentially trigger resentment Asking patients personal questions Automatic reactions/responses indicate that the nurse is never taking the context seriously Defensive reaction/response may make the patient feel that she lacks right to an opinion False reassurance that is never backed by facts could lead to more harm than good Passive/aggressive reaction/responses-passive reactions evades the issues while aggressive ones could be confrontational Providing personal opinions Sympathy remain subjective and hence bars a precise image of the situation of the patient Nurse-patient communication based on therapeutic techniques creates an association between the patient and the nurse. Such techniques are placed into the practice in the course of the communication with a patient. Thera are various types or forms utilized in the collection of the info from patient (Arnold and Boggs 2015). The useful ones on a wider perspective include interview. The interview is a prearranged conversation with patient to acquire history of the patient as well as the info regarding the present illness. The interview encompass various forms of questions as well as stages. Three main questions each of which serve specific purpose are as follows: Open-ended questions: This makes the patient to tell his entire story relating to health problem. The nurses then establishes the concern regarding the patient and could encourage the patient to give additional info by asserting: Is there anything else Closed-ended questions: These are indeed confined to a single or two word responses like yes or no. Nevertheless, such questions are utilized where the nurses wishes to know a particular response to a query. Focused questions: These are utilized where there is an already established, firm nurse-patient relationship. Such questions lead in extended reactions, but are merely utilized with the resistant patient. The interview encompasses 3 distinct stages as follows: Orientation Stage: This is the phase at which the nurse introduces herself to patient as well as explains the interview purpose. The nurse explicates the reason the data is collected. The nurse has to understand the needs of the patient. Trust as well as confidentiality have to be conveyed by the nurse. Professionalisms is of utmost imperative. Working Stage: This is the point at which a nurse asks the patients questions to acquire data for purpose of nursing care plan development. In this stage, the nurse utilizes strategies like silence, clarifying, paraphrasing, and listening to facilitate the TC. Termination Stage: This is the phase at which the nurse makes the patient know the interview is coming to the end. The nurse could say that there remains a few more queries to ask. The nurse then needs to give a summary of the info and ask the patient to confirm the accuracy of the information. References Arnold, E.C. and Boggs, K.U., 2015. Interpersonal Relationships-E-Book: Professional Communication Skills for Nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences. Birks, M., Chapman, Y.B. and Davis, J., 2015. Professional and Therapeutic Communication. Oxford University Press. Fan, C.W. and Taylor, R., 2016. Quality of a Theory-Based Assessment to Measure Therapeutic Communication Styles During Rehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(4_Supplement_1), pp.7011500070p1-7011500070p1. Fan, C.W. and Taylor, R.R., 2016. Assessing Therapeutic Communication During Rehabilitation: The Clinical Assessment of Modes. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(4), pp.7004280010p1-7004280010p10. Fortinash, K.M. and Worret, P.A.H., 2014. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Knapp, H., 2014. Therapeutic communication: Developing professional skills. Sage Publications. Lindquist, R., Snyder, M. and Tracy, M.F. eds., 2013. Complementary alternative therapies in nursing. Springer Publishing Company. Mills, J., 2017. Therapeutic Communication In Mental Health Nursing: Aesthetic And Metaphoric Processes In The Engagement With Challenging Patients. Issues in mental health nursing, 38(8), p.684. Riley, J.B., 2015. Communication in nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. Sherko, E., Sotiri, E. and Lika, E., 2013. Therapeutic communication. JAHR, 4(7), pp.457-466. Stuart, G.W., 2014. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Webster, D., 2014. Using standardized patients to teach therapeutic communication in psychiatric nursing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(2), pp.e81-e86. Wessel, P., The Genesis Institute Initiative, 2015. Two-way television enabled therapeutic communication systems and methods. U.S. Patent Application 14/837,526. Yas, I.W. and Mohammed, S.H., 2017. Improving Nurses Knowledge regarding to therapeutic Communication by implementing an Educational Program in Al Rashad Psychiatric Teaching Hospital at Baghdad City. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 10(7), pp.2088-2090. Yas, M.I.W. and Mohammed, S.H., 2016. Assessment of Nurses Knowledge about Therapeutic Communication in Psychiatric Teaching Hospitals at Baghdad City. Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Addicted to Love Essay Addicted to LoveIn Gottfried Von Strassburgs retelling of the ancient romance, Tristan, loves portrayal as a psychological disease is considerable. For Rivalin and Blancheflor, Tristan and Isolde, and also King Mark, the affliction causes them to act in a way that they would normally shun.Love changes the perspective on life of those who become intoxicated by its power; whether its shared as a couple or entirely unreciprocated, the lust to attain and secure its presence is consuming. Loves torment of Tristan and Isolde is a sweet torment that noble lovers endure. Grieves are shared, blessings are doubled, and embraces are electrifying on both the physical and emotional levels. One sided love is a hell like no other. Here, passions of the heart will override the sensibilities of the mind. This agony filled state is where Marks resides. This theme of unreturned love is as relevant today as it is in Gottfrieds time. Marks perception of the world, mentally and even at times physically, i s greatly skewed by loves drunken haze. Broken on the wheel of love, Marks heart is tortured until he confesses that Isolde is unfaithful; then just as cruel, he is fooled into believing she is his. This repeated scenario of torture is by far the highest tragedy in the romance. The climax of the abuse is when Mark questions his own senses after the discovery of the couple copulating in the garden. Blinded by the violent inebriation of amour, he disavows empirical proof of Isoldes betrayal. While through the omnipotent narration the reader sees that Isolde never loves Mark, the king is nevertheless betrayed. First of course, he betrays himself. All indication points to the affair. His heart is not a friend at this point for Mark. Isoldes betrayal goes beyond betrayal of the state; the real issue is that of betraying the heart. It is only through this betrayal that love is able to rape Marks psyche. Coupled with the fact that his dearest friend and confidant, Tristan, is embroiled in this nightmare; Mark is to be pitied greatly. Gottfried has Mark suffer the three greatest betrayals a person can encounter: his own, that of his lovers and that of his friends. The love Mark has for both Isolde and Tristan only work against him; for had he been free of loves grip, he would have trusted his senses and his intuitions. Although void of all supernatural occurrences, Rivalin and Blancheflor fall as deeply in love as will their unfortunate son.The ultimately fatal addiction to the euphoria is nearly instantaneous. For both Rivalin and Blancheflor the danger involved in consummating their love is twofold. Bearing a bastard child would result not only in the cataclysmic loss of societal position, but quite possibly her death. Rivalin, less prudent then his future son, risks the wrath of an angry Mark by out right eloping with his true love. Under the influence of loves tyrannical reign, both disregard their reservations and good sense; blinded by passion they escape to Parmenie to be legally wed. Like a wounded cowboy in a classic western film who downs whiskey to avoid the pain of a gunshot wound or snake bite, love appears to ease the pain of Rivalins wounds after a battle. Although on what is almost his death, the passion for Blancheflor numbs his hurt and allows Tristan to be conceived. As perfect l overs, Tristan and Isoldes addiction to Cupids opiate is surpassed by none. This is proven by the trials Brangane endures, the disregard for Isoldes personal acts of treason, and also the blows to Tristans honor and loyalty to his uncle. Once Isolde has the epiphany that the killer of her Uncle Morold is bathing in the next room, she is enraged. However, she is unable to extract revenge on Tristan. Gottfried suggests this is due to a feminine instinct; simply, that Isolde was too refined to commit such an uncouth act. This delicate characterization of Isolde would not last long. Upon the accidental ingestion of the love potion, Isolde is assaulted by the silent waylayer of hearts. Under siege by love, Isolde and Tristan both transform into a creature of love whose only objective is that of self preservation. Support for this is found each time that Gottfried turns to parallelism when describing the couple. This use of language signals the birth of a new animal, one that is bent on s urviving. Once the libation of love is imbibed, Tristan is Isolde, and Isolde is Tristan. Brangane, through no fault of her own, nearly falls prey to the ravenous beast that had become the couple. Gottfried has Brangane nearly suffer two deaths at the hands of the lovers. The first death the maiden suffers is that of her honor. Isolde manipulates her long time friend and servant by playing upon the guilt of her friend. Only under the influence of love would she have asked so much of her friend. This injury, however, is perhaps forgivable. Given the incident in the bath with her future lover, it seems implausible that Isolde could ever have dreamed of having Brangane killed; therefore she must not have been the same person as before. Indeed she was not. Thus love not only changes Isoldes relationship with Brangane, but it changes her relationship with herself. Gottfried is emphasizing that noble lovers have different priorities. First, if the King discovers she is no longer a virgin, then death will quickly follow. This recklessness does not mean that Isolde doesnt value her life. Her loss of innocence is proof of the power of loves coercion. Otherwise, she obviously would have avoided the disgrace. Going further, the only reason she doesnt commit suicide from shear melancholy is because she fears hurting her beloved Tristan. This idea is furthered again, by Gottfrieds use of parallelism. The symbiotic life the lovers are now leading has changed Isoldes perception of herself, because now her identity is linked indefinitely with that of Tristans. They are one in the same, as if they share a mutual physical body. Tristan is not immune to such a change either. Interestingly, the only time he really is able to overcome loves enslaving bonds is during the return trip to Tintagel. Here loyalty and honor win out over loves might. This inconsistency is an odd departure from Gottfrieds theme of loves overwhelming capacity. However, loves reign quickly returns, and prove s to be the tragic flaw of the otherwise perfect Tristan. A man who treats loyalty, honor, and chivalric codes as a religious-like ethics, has no trouble betraying not only his uncle and his friend, but his king. Gottfried is emphasizing the corruptive nature that love has over the individual. When in love, the infected wretch changes their entire perspective on life; their goals, their ethics; having all other personal desires subordinated to the intense passion to keep loves fire raging. Once drunk with love, the victim is likely to assume traits foreign to their character. No matter if its a sip from the chalice or a long draught from the jug, the connoisseur will risk life and limb to maintain the high. In Gottfrieds version of Tristan, loves potency renders much pain and heartache to those who choose to pick up the habit.